Etymology and Early History
– Pliny the Elder documented the earliest account of the peninsula’s inhabitants as the Catharrei.
– Ptolemy referred to the peninsula as Catara and mentioned a town named Cadara.
– The term Cataraei was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which Katara emerged as the most commonly recognized spelling.
– Eventually, the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country’s name.
– Human habitation in Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago.
– Settlements and tools from the Stone Age have been discovered in the peninsula.
– Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing pearls and purple dye.
– During the Islamic period, Qatar became a center of pearl trading.
– Archaeological remains from the 9th century suggest the construction of stone-built houses and public buildings.
– Mesopotamian artifacts from the Ubaid period have been discovered in coastal settlements.
– Al Daasa, a settlement on the western coast, is an important Ubaid site.
– Kassite Babylonian material found on Al Khor Islands indicates trade relations with Bahrain.
– Qatar may be the earliest known site of shellfish dye production.
– Under the Sasanid reign, Christianity spread in Eastern Arabia, and monasteries were constructed.

Islamic Period and Modern Era
– Qatar became a famous horse and camel breeding center during the Umayyad period.
– The pearling industry developed during the Abbasid era.
– Ships traveling from Basra to India and China made stops in Qatar’s ports.
– Qatari inhabitants constructed stone-built houses, mosques, and an Abbasid fort in Murwab.
– Yaqut al-Hamawi’s book mentions Qataris’ fine striped woven cloaks and their skills in spear improvement.
– Qatar became a British protectorate in 1916 and gained independence in 1971.
– The current emir is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, who holds executive and legislative authority.
– The total population of Qatar in early 2017 was 2.6 million, with 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates.
– Qatar has the fourth-highest GDP (PPP) per capita in the world.
– Qatar is one of the world’s largest exporters of liquefied natural gas and the largest emitter of carbon dioxide per capita.

Historical Periods and Independence
– Bahraini and Saudi rule (1783–1868)
– Al Khalifa family migrated from Kuwait to Zubarah in Qatar in 1766.
– Bani Khalid had weak authority over the peninsula.
– Qatar-based Bani Utbah clans and allied Arab tribes invaded and annexed Bahrain in 1783.
– Al Khalifa imposed their authority over Bahrain and retained jurisdiction over Zubarah.
– Wahhabi forces faced attacks from Ottomans, Egyptians, Al Khalifa in Bahrain, and Omanis.
– The Ottoman period (1871–1915)
– Al Thani tribe submitted to Ottoman rule in 1871 under pressure from the governor of the Ottoman Vilayet of Baghdad.
– Ottoman government imposed reformist measures for taxation and land registration.
– Al Thani rebelled against the Ottomans in 1892, believing they sought to control the peninsula.
– Battle of Al Wajbah in 1893 resulted in a treaty that formed the basis of Qatar’s autonomy within the empire.
– Qatar did not gain full independence from the Ottoman Empire.
– British period (1916–1971)
– Qatar became a British protectorate in 1916 under the Trucial System of Administration.
– Treaty with the British government in 1935 granted Qatar protection against internal and external threats.
– Oil reserves discovered in 1939, but development delayed by World War II.
– British political officer appointed in Doha in 1949, strengthening Anglo-Qatari relations.
– Oil exports began in 1949, becoming the main source of revenue for Qatar.
– Independence and modernization (1971–present)
– Qatar gained independence from Britain in 1971.
– Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of Qatar in 1972.
– Qatar National Vision 2030 launched in 2008 to transform the country into a knowledge-based economy.
– Hosting of major international events like the Asian Games in 2006 and FIFA World Cup in 2022.
– Qatar’s economy diversified into sectors like finance, real estate, and tourism.

Politics, Law, and International Relations
– Politics
– Qatar is officially a semi-constitutional monarchy.
– The Al Thani family has been ruling Qatar since 1825.
– Qatar adopted a constitution in 2003 allowing direct election of legislators.
– The Emir has the exclusive power to appoint the prime minister and cabinet ministers.
– Qatar does not permit the establishment of political bodies or trade unions.
– Law
– Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation.
– Qatar’s legal system is a mixture of civil law and Sharia law.
– Sharia law is applied to family law, inheritance, and several criminal acts.
– Judicial corporal punishment is a punishment in Qatar.
– Adultery, apostasy, and homosexuality are crimes punishable by death.
– International Relations
– Qatar’s increased influence during the Arab Spring worsened tensions with Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Bahrain.
Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Bahrain cut off diplomatic relations with Qatar in 2017.
– Qatar formed closer economic and military ties with Turkey and Iran.
– Qatar hosted the 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab and Muslim-majority country to do so.
– Qatar has been involved in regional conflicts and has supported various groups.

Alcohol Regulations, Military, and Foreign Relations
– Alcohol regulations in Qatar
Muslims are notSources: