Name and History of Turkey
– The name ‘Turkey’ appears in Western sources after the late 11th century, referring to the Seljuk-controlled lands in Anatolia and the Near East.
– The English name ‘Turkey’ means land of the Turks and dates back to at least 1719.
– The name ‘Turkey’ has been used in international treaties to define the Ottoman Empire.
– In Byzantine sources, the name ‘Tourkia’ was used for defining two medieval states: Hungary (Western Tourkia) and Khazaria (Eastern Tourkia).
– The sentiment of ‘Turkey for the Turks’ rose after the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, and the name ‘Türkiye’ entered international documents for the first time with the Treaty of Alexandropol.
– The Anatolian peninsula is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world.
– Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic until the Hellenistic period.
– The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least 40,000 years ago.
– The migration of early farmers from Anatolia about 9,000 years ago played a significant role in spreading agriculture from the Middle East to Europe.
– Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made structure in the world, dating to circa 9600 BC.

Geography of Turkey
– Turkey is located at the juncture of Southeast Europe and West Asia.
– It is mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in West Asia, with a small portion called East Thrace on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.
– Turkey borders the Black Sea to the north, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east, Iraq to the southeast, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west.
– Cyprus is off the south coast of Turkey.
– The capital of Turkey is Ankara, and the largest city is Istanbul.

Economy of Turkey
– Turkey is classified among the E7, EAGLEs, and NICs.
– It ranks 17th-largest in the world by nominal GDP and 11th-largest by PPP.
– Turkey is a founding member of the OECD and G20.
– The economy of Turkey is a regional power and has a significant strategic location.
– Turkey is home to 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the fourth most visited country in the world.

Ancient Anatolia
– Göbekli Tepe, the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site in Anatolia, dates back to approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC.
– The Urfa Man statue, dated c. 9000 BC, is the oldest known naturalistic life-sized sculpture of a human.
– Troy, settled in the Neolithic Age, is considered a potential historical setting for the legends of the Trojan War.
– The Hattians and Hurrians were the earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia, with the Hittites eventually establishing the first empire in the region.
– The Assyrians conquered parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC.

Roman and Byzantine Anatolia
– Aeolian and Ionian Greeks settled along the coast of Anatolia, founding important cities such as Miletus, Ephesus, and Byzantium.
– Miletus was home to prominent pre-Socratic philosophers, including Thales of Miletus.
– Aphrodisias, named after the Greek goddess Aphrodite, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
– The Library of Celsus in Ephesus and the Temple of Artemis were notable architectural achievements.
– The Armenian Orontid dynasty and the Odyrisians in Thrace played significant roles in ancient Anatolia.
– Constantinople (Istanbul) became the new capital of the Roman Empire under Constantine the Great in 330 AD.
– The Hagia Sophia, built by Emperor Justinian the Great, is a renowned architectural masterpiece.
– The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire reached its greatest extent under Justinian the Great.
– Byzantine Anatolia played a significant role in the Byzantine Empire.
– Constantinople was renamed from New Rome to Constantinople, becoming a major center of power and culture.Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey