Names and History
– The English name Egypt is derived from the Ancient Greek Aígyptos, via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus.
– The adjective aigýpti-/aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبط (qubṭ), whence English Copt.
– The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah or Memphis, a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name ḥwt-kȝ-ptḥ, meaning home of the ka (soul) of Ptah, the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis.
– The Neo-Assyrian Empire used the derived term Mu-ṣur.
– The ancient Egyptian name of the country was km.t, which means black land, likely referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret, or red land of the desert.
– Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt are the main periods of Egypt’s history.
– Rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases provide evidence of early human activity.
– Around 8000 BCE, climate changes or overgrazing led to the desiccation of pastoral lands, forming the Sahara.
– By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture emerged in the Nile Valley.
– The Badarian culture and the Naqada series are considered precursors to dynastic Egypt.

– Egypt is a transcontinental country located in northeast Africa and the southwest corner of Asia.
– It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west.
– The Gulf of Aqaba separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia.
– The Nile River runs through Egypt, providing fertile land for agriculture.
– The Sahara desert covers a large portion of Egypt’s territory.

– Egypt has a population of approximately 110 million people.
– It is the 14th-most populated country in the world and the third-most populated in Africa.
– The majority of Egyptians live near the banks of the Nile River.
– Urban areas in Egypt are home to about 43% of the population.
– The most densely populated areas include greater Cairo, Alexandria, and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

– Egypt has a long and rich cultural heritage.
– It is considered a cradle of civilization, with early developments in writing, agriculture, urbanization, organized religion, and central government.
– The country’s cultural identity reflects its transcontinental location, combining Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North African influences.
– Egypt has a diverse linguistic landscape, with Literary Arabic as the official language and Egyptian Arabic as the spoken language.
– The country has a significant historic Christian minority, although estimates of its size vary.

Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Monarchy
– Ancient Egypt was founded by King Menes in 3150 BCE and flourished for three millennia.
– Notable periods include the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom.
– The New Kingdom marked the rise of Egypt as an international power and the first historically attested expression of monotheism with Atenism.
– Egypt experienced Persian and Greek rule, with the Ptolemaic dynasty becoming prominent.
– The Roman Empire eventually annexed Egypt.
– The Egyptian monarchy existed from 1922 to 1952, with various events and political changes during this period.Sources: