Geography and Size
– Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere.
– It shares the landmass of Afro-Eurasia with Africa and Asia.
– Bordered by the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Asia.
– Covers about 10.18 million square kilometers (3.93 million square miles).
– Second-smallest continent using the seven-continent model.

Population and Economy
– Europe had a population of about 745 million in 2021, making it the third-largest continent.
– Population density is 72.9 people per square kilometer (188 people per square mile).
– GDP (PPP) is estimated at $33.62 trillion in 2022, ranking second globally.
– GDP (nominal) is estimated at $24.02 trillion in 2022, ranking third globally.
– GDP per capita is around $34,230 in 2022.

– European climate is influenced by warm Atlantic currents, tempering winters and summers.
– Seasonal differences are more noticeable further from the sea.
– Climate in Europe is milder compared to Asia and North America.
– The continent experiences diverse climate zones, including Mediterranean, temperate, and subarctic.
– Climate variations impact agriculture, tourism, and energy consumption.

History and Culture
– European culture is the foundation of Western civilization, tracing back to ancient Greece and Rome.
– The fall of the Western Roman Empire marked the end of Europe’s ancient history.
– The Italian Renaissance brought a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, art, and science.
– Europe played a dominant role in global affairs during the Age of Discovery and colonial period.
– The continent experienced significant cultural, political, and economic changes during the Industrial Revolution and the World Wars.

European Union and Council of Europe
– The Council of Europe was founded in 1948 to unify Europe and prevent future wars.
– The European Union (EU) is a supranational political entity based on European law.
– EU originated in Western Europe and expanded eastward after the fall of the Soviet Union.
– EU members have adopted the euro as a common currency and participate in the single market.
– The Schengen Area abolished internal border controls, promoting free movement within member states.Sources: