History and Development of Manufacturing
– Human ancestors manufactured objects using stone tools before Homo sapiens
– Different techniques were developed throughout prehistory, such as the Oldowan industry and pressure flaking
– The Neolithic period saw the manufacturing of polished stone tools and the use of copper smelting
– The Bronze Age brought advancements in manufacturing with the widespread use of bronze
– Medieval and early modern periods saw the spread of papermaking technology and the development of new manufacturing processes during the Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution and Innovations
– The Industrial Revolution transitioned Europe and the United States to new manufacturing processes
– Textiles were the dominant industry during this time
– Innovations included the use of steam power, machine tools, and the development of assembly lines
– Late innovations in the 1840s and 1850s introduced locomotives and steamships
– The Second Industrial Revolution brought further advancements, such as electricity and mass production

Mechanization in Manufacturing
– Different industries experienced mechanization, such as shoe production, sewing machines, and bicycles
– Steam-powered factories became widespread, leading to increased output
– Electric motors enabled modern mass production and increased flexibility in manufacturing

Modern Manufacturing
– Electrification of factories accelerated between 1900 and 1930
– Ford Motor Company popularized mass production
– Lean manufacturing, also known as just-in-time manufacturing, was developed in Japan and spread to western countries
– Five key dimensions of manufacturing performance: cost, quality, dependability, flexibility, and innovation
– Manufacturing often seen as less strategic compared to marketing and finance

Manufacturing and Investment
– Surveys and analyses focus on variations in manufacturing and industrial-economic growth across countries
– Competitiveness and attractiveness to foreign direct investors are important factors in manufacturing and investment
China is the top manufacturer worldwide, followed by the United States, Japan, Germany, and India
– Manufacturing output varies across countries and regions, playing a significant role in their economies
– U.S. manufacturing performs poorly compared to other high-wage countriesSources: