Types of Memory
– Sensory memory holds information for less than one second after perception
– Short-term memory allows recall for several seconds to a minute without rehearsal
– Long-term memory has a larger capacity and can store information for a longer duration
– Declarative memory is the conscious storage and recollection of data
– Non-declarative memory is the unconscious storage and recollection of information
– Procedural memory is implicit and based on implicit learning

Memory Models and Processes
– Multi-store model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968
– Working memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974
– Different types of memory tasks: recognition, recall, topographical, flashbulb memories
– Encoding in memory: acoustic encoding for short-term memory, semantic encoding for long-term memory
– Molecular mechanisms of long-term memory: gene transcription, protein synthesis, DNA methylation and demethylation

Memory and the Brain
– Brain areas involved in memory: hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex
– Changes in neuronal synapses support learning and memory
– Emotionally charged events are better remembered
– Memory representation is distributed across multiple neocortical circuits
– Genetics of memory: APOE and Alzheimer’s disease, KIBRA protein and forgetting rate

Memory Failures
– Memories degrade with time: transience in sensory, short-term, and long-term storage
– Absent-mindedness leads to memory failure due to lack of attention
– Damage to certain brain areas can cause memory deficits
– Small losses in memory occur over time
– Memory failure can be caused by interference and lack of consolidation

Molecular Mechanisms of Memory
– Encoding of working memory and episodic memory
– Consolidation and reconsolidation of memory
– Genetic underpinnings of long-term memory: protein synthesis, synapse reinforcement, NMDA receptors
– DNA methylation and demethylation in memory formation
– Epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation: DNA methylation, histone modifications, DNA damage and repairSources: