Definition and Purpose of Apprenticeship
– Apprenticeship is a system for training practitioners of a trade or profession.
– It involves on-the-job training and accompanying study.
– Apprenticeships can lead to a license to practice in a regulated occupation.
– Training is provided by an employer in exchange for the apprentice’s labor.
– The length of apprenticeships varies across sectors and professions.

History and Cultural Variations of Apprenticeship
– Apprenticeship developed in the Middle Ages and was supervised by craft guilds and town governments.
– Different terms are used to describe apprenticeship in different cultures and sectors.
– Some common terms include internship and trainee-ship.
– The European Commission and CEDEFOP prefer the term apprenticeship.
– Some non-European countries adopt European apprenticeship practices.

Types of Apprenticeships
– Apprenticeships can be independent or cooperative.
– Independent apprenticeships are organized and managed by employers.
– Cooperative apprenticeships involve educational institutions.
– Australian Apprenticeships cover all industry sectors in Australia.
– They can be full-time, part-time, or school-based.

Country-specific Examples of Apprenticeships
– Apprenticeship in Austria includes both school-based and company-based training.
– Canadian apprenticeships tend to be formalized for craft trades and technician level qualifications.
– Vocational schools in the Czech Republic provide two to four years of secondary practical education.
– Apprenticeships in France developed between the ninth and thirteenth centuries.
– Apprenticeships are part of Germany’s dual education system.
– The Apprentices Act was enacted in India in 1961.
– Apprenticeships in Ireland are split into two main categories: craft and new.
– Tailor apprenticeships engage with skilled tailors in Liberia.
– The Igbo apprentice system is widely practiced in Nigeria.
– Apprenticeship training in Pakistan is implemented under the National Apprenticeship Ordinance.
– Two-thirds of young people in Switzerland follow vocational training.
– Apprenticeships in Turkey have three levels: apprentice, pre-master, and mastery.
– Apprenticeships in the United Kingdom have a long tradition dating back to the 12th century.
– Apprenticeships in the United States are regulated by various acts.

Analogues and Examples in Higher Education and Professional Development
– Internships are similar to apprenticeships but less rigorous.
– Universities use apprenticeship schemes for scholar production.
– Graduate students as apprentices, post-doctoral fellows as journeymen, and professors as masters.
– Internships and apprenticeships have similarities in training and mentorship.
– Historical origins of apprenticeships can be found in ancient Europe and Britain.
– Examples of apprenticeship systems can be found in archives and literature.
– Apprenticeships are also present in Australia and Austria, among other countries.Sources: