Ancient Rome

Early Rome and the Roman Republic
– Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus.
– Archaeological evidence of settlement around Rome starts to emerge around 1000 BC.
– Large-scale organization appears around 800 BC, with the first graves in the Esquiline Hills necropolis.
– Romans started to drain the valley between the Capitoline and Palatine Hills around 650 BC.
– The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was constructed on the Capitoline in the 6th century BC.
– Kings ruled in Rome, attested in 6th century BC texts.
– A vestigial rex sacrorum was retained after the abolition of the monarchy.
– Rome controlled a territory of about 780 square kilometers by the end of the 6th century BC.
– The Regia palace was constructed around 625 BC.
– Rome extended its control over its Latin neighbors, indicating a shared culture.
– The Roman Republic was established around 509 BC after the deposition of the last king.
– The republic had a constitution with checks and balances and a separation of powers.
– The consuls, elected annually, exercised executive authority.
– Other magistrates of the republic included tribunes, quaestors, aediles, praetors, and censors.
– Rome and its Italian neighbors entered a period of turbulence by the end of the 6th century BC.

Roman Empire and Achievements
– The Roman Empire began in 27 BC after the end of the Roman Republic.
– It expanded through conquest, cultural assimilation, and linguistic assimilation.
– At its height, the empire controlled North Africa, Egypt, Southern Europe, and parts of Western Europe, the Balkans, Crimea, and the Middle East.
– The Greco-Roman world refers to the shared cultures and societies of ancient Greece and Rome.
– Ancient Roman civilization contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture, and engineering.
– Rome achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of aqueducts and roads.
– The Roman state created a system of government called res publica, which influenced modern republics.
– Roman civilization has left a lasting impact on language, religion, society, and technology.
– Rome’s military was professionalized and expanded.
– Roman art, literature, architecture, and engineering are highly regarded and influential.

Punic Wars and Late Republic
– The First Punic War began in 264 BC when Rome entered a war with Carthage due to conflicts with Syracuse and Messana.
– Carthage, a maritime power, posed a challenge to Rome, which lacked ships and naval experience.
– After over 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed.
– The Second Punic War began with Hannibal’s audacious invasion of Hispania and his subsequent march through Italy.
– Hannibal’s invasion lasted over 16 years, but Carthage was ultimately defeated in the decisive Battle of Zama.
– After defeating the Macedonian and Seleucid Empires, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean.
– Internal strife arose due to senators becoming rich at the expense of the provinces and the reliance on foreign slaves.
– The equestrians, a new class of merchants, faced political restrictions despite their economic success.
– The Gracchi brothers attempted land reform legislation, but were killed and their reforms were reversed.
– The plebeian groups (populares) and equestrian classes (optimates) became increasingly divided.
– Gaius Marius held an unprecedented number of consulships and implemented military reforms.
– Marius recruited the very poor and landless men into the army.
– He was elected for five consecutive consulships to defeat the Cimbri and the Teutones.
– Rome experienced a brief peace, during which the Italian allies requested Roman citizenship and voting rights.
– The socii revolted against the Romans in the Social War.
– Sulla was elected as consul and tasked with defeating Mithridates VI of Pontus.
– Sulla marched to Rome with his legions and eliminated those who supported Marius.
– Marius and Cinna seized power and conducted a massacre, but Marius died shortly after.
– Sulla returned from his Eastern campaigns and established his own power through terror.
– Sulla held dictatorships and a consulship, marking the beginning of the crisis and decline of the Roman Republic.
– In the mid-1st century BC, Roman politics were divided into two groups: populares and optimates.
– Julius Caesar, a popular figure, formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus.
– Caesar made an opposed landing in Kent, England, and later conducted a more serious invasion.
– The First Triumvirate allowed Caesar to gain power and influence in Rome.
– Caesar’s rise to power marked a significant turning point in Roman history.

Second Triumvirate and Julio-Claudian Dynasty
– Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate.
– Antony’s affair with Cleopatra was seen as treason.
– War broke out between Octavian and Antony, resulting in the Battle of Actium.
– Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
– Egypt was conquered by the Roman Empire.
– Octavian became the sole Roman leader and took the name Augustus.
– Augustus assumed absolute powers and brought about the Pax Romana.
– Julio-Claudian dynasty was established by Augustus.
– Imperial tradition was instituted and republican values were destroyed.
– Augustus’ reign was peaceful and he expanded the Roman Empire.
– Augustus gathered republican powers under his title of princeps.
– Senators lost certain ruling rights and Praetorian Guard was created.
– Augustus’ reign was peaceful and supported by the people and nobles.
– Roman literature flourished during Augustus’ reign.
– Pax Augusta brought a peaceful era to Rome.
– Tiberius succeeded Augustus but retired from politicalSources: