Ultrasonic transducer

Applications and Performance of Ultrasonic Transducers
– Ultrasound can measure wind speed and direction, tank or channel fluid level, and speed through air or water.
– It is used in humidifiers, sonar, medical ultrasonography, burglar alarms, and non-destructive testing.
– Ultrasound systems use transducers to generate sound waves in the ultrasonic range.
– The technology can detect approaching objects and track their positions.
– Point-to-point distance measurements can be made using ultrasound.

Types and Characteristics of Ultrasonic Transducers
– Ultrasonic transducers convert AC into ultrasound and vice versa.
– Piezoelectric transducers and capacitive transducers are commonly used.
– Piezoelectric crystals change their sizes and shapes in response to voltage.
– Capacitive transducers use electrostatic fields between a diaphragm and a backing plate.
– Transducer beam patterns are determined by the active area, shape, ultrasound wavelength, and sound velocity.

Use of Ultrasonic Transducers in Depth Sounding
– Echo sounding involves transmitting acoustic waves into water and recording the time interval between emission and return.
– It is used for navigation purposes and obtaining depths for charting.
– Distance is measured by multiplying half the time of flight by the speed of sound in water.
– Sound velocity must be measured for precise applications.
– The first practical fathometer was invented in 1928.

Use of Ultrasonic Transducers in Medicine
– Medical ultrasonic transducers are used for making cross-sectional images of various body parts.
– Transducers can be used in contact with the skin or inserted into body openings.
– Ultrasound provides real-time images, is portable, and does not use harmful ionizing radiation.
– Drawbacks include limits on field of view, patient cooperation, and dependence on a skilled operator.
– Wearable ultrasound devices are gaining popularity for continuous monitoring of vitals.

Use of Ultrasonic Transducers in Industry
– Ultrasonic sensors can detect movement and measure distance in automated factories and process plants.
– They have digital or analog outputs for object detection and web guiding systems.
– Ultrasonic sensors are used in cars as parking sensors and for other automotive applications.
– They work in applications where photoelectric sensors may not, such as clear object detection and liquid level measurement.
– Ultrasonics is a solution for target translucence, which photoelectrics struggle with.Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrasonic_transducer