Geography and History
– Texas is the second-largest U.S. state by both area and population.
– It shares borders with Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Mexican states.
– The state has a diverse landscape, including coastal swamps, piney woods, rolling plains, rugged hills, and desert.
– Less than ten percent of Texas’ land area is desert.
– The highest elevation in Texas is Guadalupe Peak at 8,751 feet.
– Texas was first claimed and controlled by Spain, followed by France and Mexico.
– In 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico and became the Republic of Texas.
– Texas joined the United States as the 28th state in 1845.
– The annexation of Texas led to the Mexican-American War in 1846.
– Texas seceded from the Union during the American Civil War and joined the Confederate States of America.

– Before World War II, major industries in Texas included cattle, cotton, timber, and oil.
– The cattle industry dominated Texas and shaped the image of the Texas cowboy.
– Cotton and lumber also became significant industries.
– The discovery of major petroleum deposits led to an economic boom in the 20th century.
– Texas has a diversified economy and is a leader in industries such as tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, and technology.

– The name ‘Texas’ is derived from the Caddo word ‘táyshaʼ’ meaning ‘friends.’
– The Spanish applied the name ‘Tejas’ to the Caddo themselves and the territory.
– Alternative etymologies connect the name ‘Texas’ with the Spanish word for roof tile or indigenous Pueblo settlements.
– The English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological.
– Both ‘Tejas’ and ‘Texas’ are recognized as Spanish-language forms of the state’s name.

Native Peoples and European Colonization
– When Europeans arrived, various Native American cultures were present in Texas.
– Native peoples in Texas included Caddoan, Atakapan, Athabaskan, Coahuiltecan, and Uto-Aztecan tribes.
– The Caddo controlled the northeastern part of the state, while the Apache tribes lived throughout the interior.
– The Karankawa lived along the central coast, and the Atakapan peoples lived along the Gulf Coast.
– The Aranama tribe of Coahuiltecans lived in southern Texas.
– Many tribes migrated from the north or east during the colonial period.
– Spanish missions were opened in Caddo territory, but conversions were few.
– The Caddo maintained cordial relations with both French and Spanish.
– After the Louisiana Purchase, the Caddo migrated to Louisiana and Arkansas.
– The first historical document related to Texas was a map created by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda in 1519.
– Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort were the first Europeans in Texas in 1528.
– Cabeza de Vaca reported a disease that caused the death of half the natives upon Spanish arrival.
– Francisco Vázquez de Coronado encountered Querechos and Teyas tribes in 1541.
– European powers ignored Texas until accidentally settling there in 1685.
– Spanish controlled Texas until the Texas Revolution.
– Spanish were interested in relationships with the settled, agricultural Caddo.
– Spanish opened missions in Caddo territory, but conversions were limited.
– Most missions in eastern Texas were closed and abandoned after Spain took control of Louisiana.
– Spanish tried to lure the Caddo back after they migrated to Louisiana and Arkansas.

Statehood, Mexican-American War, and Civil War
– Republic of Texas attempted to negotiate annexation with the United States.
– Opposition from nationalist faction and abolitionists slowed Texas’ admission into the Union.
– Texas was annexed after James K. Polk won the election of 1844.
– Texas was admitted to the U.S. Congress on December 29, 1845.
– Statehood brought new settlers and the development of the cowboy culture.
– Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States after Texas’ annexation.
– Border dispute between Texas and Mexico led to the Thornton Affair and the start of the Mexican-American War.
– First battles of the war were fought in Texas: Siege of Fort Texas, Battle of Palo Alto, and Battle of Resaca de la Palma.
– Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war, giving the U.S. control of Texas and establishing its borders.
– Compromise of 1850 set Texas’ boundaries at their present form.
– Texas voted to secede from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America.
– Not all Texans initially favored secession, including Governor Sam Houston.
– Around 2,000 Texans served in the Union Army, particularly German immigrants in Texas Hill Country.
– Texas contributed soldiers and equipment to the Confederacy, despite being far from major battlefields.
– Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction in Texas.
– Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston.
– President Johnson declared the civilian government restored in Texas in 1866.
– Congress allowed elected Texas representatives into the federal government in 1870.
– Texas struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues during Reconstruction.
– Texas economy recovered more quickly than other Southern states due to less dependence on slavery.Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas