Geography and Demographics
– Serbia is a landlocked country located in Southeast and Central Europe.
– It shares borders with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
– Serbia claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo.
– The capital and largest city of Serbia is Belgrade.
– Serbia is situated in the Balkans and the Pannonian Plain.
– The official language of Serbia is Serbian.
– The ethnic composition of Serbia (excluding Kosovo) is 84.4% Serbs, 2.6% Hungarians, 2.2% Bosniaks, 1.2% Roma, and others.
– The population density of Serbia is 85.8/km.
– The average life expectancy in Serbia is 75.3 years.
– Serbia has a very high Human Development Index (HDI) ranking.

History and Political Status
– Serbia has a rich history that dates back to the Paleolithic Age.
– It faced Slavic migrations in the 6th century, establishing regional states in the early Middle Ages.
– The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition from the Holy See and Constantinople in 1217.
– The Ottomans annexed the entirety of modern-day Serbia in the mid-16th century.
– The Serbian Revolution in the early 19th century established the nation-state and expanded its territory.
– In 1918, Serbia united with the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina and founded Yugoslavia.
– Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, which was peacefully dissolved in 2006, restoring Serbia’s independence.
– Representatives of the Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008, which Serbia still claims as part of its own territory.
– Serbia is an upper-middle income economy and is negotiating its EU accession.
– The country adheres to the policy of military neutrality and provides universal healthcare and free education to its citizens.

Prehistory and Antiquity
– Archaeological evidence shows Paleolithic settlements in present-day Serbia.
– The Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in the Neolithic period.
– Local tribes like Triballi, Dardani, and Autariatae interacted with the Ancient Greeks during the Iron Age.
– The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled in the region in the 3rd century BC.
– The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC, forming several provinces.

Early Serbian Statehood and Ottoman and Habsburg Rule
– Serbia achieved statehood in the 9th century.
– Christianization of Serbia was completed by the middle of the 9th century.
– In the mid-10th century, the Serbian state expanded its territory.
– Serbian state frequently clashed with the Byzantine Empire during the 11th and 12th centuries.
– Between 1166 and 1371, Serbia was ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty, which elevated the state to a kingdom in 1217 and an empire in 1346.
– Ottoman conquest resulted in the elimination of the Serbian nobility and the enserfment of the peasantry.
– Serbs were considered an inferior class under Ottoman rule and subjected to heavy taxes.
– Many Serbs were forcibly converted to Islam and recruited into the Ottoman army.
– Serbian cultural traditions were preserved under the Millet system.
– The Habsburgs gained control over parts of Serbia through treaties and occupations.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia, World War II, and Socialist Yugoslavia
– Corfu Declaration aims to unify South Slavic states into Yugoslavia.
– Unification of regions with Serbia after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
– Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes proclaimed in 1918.
– King Alexander establishes a dictatorship in 1929 to promote Yugoslav unity.
– Assassination of King Alexander leads to a regency council and the establishment of the Banate of Croatia.
– Axis powers invade Yugoslavia in 1941 despite Yugoslav attempts to remain neutral.
– Serbian territory divided between Hungary, Bulgaria, Croatia, Albania, and Montenegro.
– Civil war between royalist Chetniks and communist partisans.
– Massacres and persecution of Serbs, Jews, and Roma by Axis forces and puppet governments.
– Josip Broz Tito leads the communist partisans to victory in World War II.
– Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established in 1945.
– Tito’s regime promotes self-management and non-alignment in international politics.
– Economic growth and social welfare programs implemented.
– Ethnic tensions and conflicts arise, leading to the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.Sources: