Remote keyless system

History and Development
– Remote keyless entry patented in 1981 by Paul Lipschultz
– Lipschultz developed the system using infrared data and a coded pulse signal generator
– Infrared technology was superseded by a European frequency in 1995
– Remote keyless systems first appeared on the Renault Fuego in 1982
– General Motors vehicles had widespread availability of remote keyless entry in 1989

Function and Operation
– Keyless remotes contain a short-range radio transmitter
– Remotes must be within a certain range of the car to work
– When a button is pushed, it sends a coded signal by radio waves to a receiver unit in the car
– RKEs operate at different frequencies depending on the region
– Modern systems implement encryption and rotating entry codes to prevent car thieves

Programming and Activation
– Remote keyless entry fobs emit a radio frequency with a distinct digital identity code
– Programming fobs is typically performed by the automobile manufacturer
– The procedure to program fobs varies among makes, models, and years
– Some websites offer steps to program fobs for individual car models
– There is a secondary market of unprogrammed devices and accessory kits for remote activation

Advantages and Features
– RKS provides convenience by allowing remote locking and unlocking of doors
– Some RKS can start the engine remotely, useful in cold weather
– Power sliding doors on minivans can be opened/closed remotely
– Convertible tops can be raised and lowered remotely
– Trunk release can be triggered to open by a button on the remote

Integration and Security
– RKS can be coupled with security systems, garage door openers, and remotely activated lighting devices
– Some cars can close open windows and roof when remotely locking the car
– Premium models may have motorized assist for opening and closing tailgates
– RKS can be integrated into office or residential security systems
– RKS can be integrated with garage door openers for added convenience
– Keyless ignition does not provide better security by default
– Insurers in the UK require additional mechanical locks for keyless ignition vehicles
– Replay attack is a security concern with remote entry systems
Rolling code system prevents replay attacks
– Radio repeaters can trick vehicles into thinking keyless entry fobs are nearbySources: