Physical security

Overview and Considerations
– Physical security systems deter potential intruders.
– They detect intrusions and monitor/record intruders.
– They trigger appropriate incident responses.
– Security controls must be balanced against risks and costs.
– Considerations include aesthetics, human rights, and societal norms.

Elements and Design
– Deterrence methods convince potential attackers of strong defenses.
– Crime prevention through environmental design is used for initial deterrence.
– Physical barriers like fences and walls prevent or delay attacks.
– Security lighting deters intruders from entering well-lit areas.
– Low-voltage LED-based lighting products offer new security capabilities.

Intrusion Detection and Electronic Surveillance
– Alarm systems and sensors alert security personnel of unauthorized access.
– Alarms work with physical barriers and serve as a psychological deterrent.
– Prompt response to alarms is crucial for their effectiveness.
– Video surveillance cameras deter and aid in incident assessment.
– Video analytics reduce the workload for human monitoring.

Access Control
Access control methods monitor and control traffic in secure facilities.
– Systems include CCTV surveillance, identification cards, and biometric readers.
– Electronic/mechanical control systems like locks and turnstiles are used.
– Mechanical access control systems include gates, doors, and locks.
– Electronic access control systems provide secure access with credentials.

Additional Measures
– Security guards play a role in incident response and access control.
– Perimeter markings and signage enhance deterrence.
– Vehicle barriers and height-restrictors limit unauthorized access.
Glass break detectors are used in alarm systems.
– IP camera networks are replacing closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems.

Subtopic: Access Control Technologies
– Proximity
– Magnetic stripe
– Smart card
– Biometrics
– Credential readers

Subtopic: Door Locking Hardware
– Electrified locks
– Electric strikes
– Maglocks
– Integration with access control systems
– Release when valid credentials are presented

Subtopic: Request to Exit Devices
– Buttons
– Motion detectors
– Sensors
– Allow free egress without triggering alarms
– Commonly used in access points

Subtopic: Alarms
– Triggered by unauthorized access attempts
– Triggered by held/forced doors
– Audible alarms and alerts
– Integration with camera systems
– Enhance security response

Subtopic: Access Levels and Event Logging
– Software limits access based on user, group, and time
– Some employees have 24/7 access while others are restricted
– Systems record access attempts, alarms, and user tracking
– Used for security auditing and troubleshooting
– Provides comprehensive access managementSources: