History of Passwords
– Passwords have been used since ancient times for access control.
– In the Roman military, watchwords were distributed to control entry.
– Military passwords evolved to include a password and a counterpassword.
– Computers started using passwords with the introduction of the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) in 1961.
– Robert Morris developed a system of storing hashed passwords in Unix in the 1970s.

Importance of Secure and Memorable Passwords
– Easy-to-remember passwords are also easier for attackers to guess.
– Difficult-to-remember passwords may lead to insecure practices like writing them down or reusing them.
– Longer passwords with a mix of characters provide more security.
– Passwords based on phrases or unrelated words with special character substitutions are harder to crack.
– Personally designed algorithms for generating passwords can be effective.

Common Password Practices
– Users often have passwords for various purposes like logging into accounts, accessing applications, and reading online content.
– Password requirements like mixing uppercase and lowercase letters or changing passwords monthly can lead to user subversion.
– Longer passwords with a variety of characters are considered more secure.
– Memorable passwords can be created by combining two unrelated words and altering some letters.
– Using a single dictionary word as a password is not recommended.

Challenges in Password Security
– Users may need to write down or store difficult-to-remember passwords, reducing security.
– Frequent password resets may be required for difficult-to-remember passwords.
– Users are more likely to reuse the same password across different accounts.
– Stringent password requirements may lead to user subversion.
– Easy-to-guess substitutions like E → 3 or I → 1 are commonly used by attackers.

Common Insecure Password Types
– Google released a list of the most common insecure password types in 2013.
– These common password types are considered insecure.
– Using easily guessable substitutions or patterns in passwords is not secure.
– The use of common phrases, dictionary words, or personal information in passwords is insecure.
– Passwords that are easily cracked by attackers pose a security risk.Sources: