Nickel – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

– Physical properties:
– Silver-white metal
– Easily polished (made shiny)
– Magnetic below 355°C (671°F)
– Not soft like many other metals
– Can be stretched into wires easily
– Chemical properties:
– Not a reactive metal
– Dissolves slowly in acids
– Does not rust like iron
– Forms a thin coating of nickel(II) oxide to prevent corrosion
– Similar behavior to aluminum
– Chemical compounds:
– Nickel(II) chloride
– Nickel(II) sulfate
– Nickel(II) compounds are green or blue
– Nickel(III) compounds are oxidizing agents and grayish
– Nickel compounds can be green, blue, gray, or black
– Nickel(II) compounds:
– Not highly reactive
– Normally green or blue
– Toxic and irritate skin
– Some are carcinogens
– Examples: nickel(II) carbonate, nickel(II) chloride, nickel(II) hydroxide, nickel(II) nitrate, nickel(II) oxide, nickel(II) sulfate
– Nickel(III) compounds:
– Black or gray
– Examples: nickel(III) oxide

– Range of atomic weight:
– Ni-48 to Ni-78
– Stable isotopes:
– Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, and Ni-64
– Radioisotopes:
– At least 26 discovered
– Most stable isotope: Ni-59 with a half-life of 76,000 years
– One meta state

– Discovery:
– Found when an ore resembling copper did not produce copper metal
– Identified as a new metal called nickel
– Isolation and classification:
– Isolated and classified as a chemical element by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt in 1751
– Sources:
– Initially obtained from copper-colored nickel ore
– Later produced as a byproduct of cobalt blue manufacturing

– Natural occurrence:
– Nickel is found as a mineral, not as a metal in the ground
– Some meteorites contain nickel and iron metal
– Common nickel mineral:
– Pentlandite
– Distribution:
– Most nickel on Earth is believed to be in the Earth’s outer and inner cores
– Major mining countries: Philippines, Russia, Canada, and Australia
– Nickel ores:
– Sulfidic and lateritic nickel ores
– Mining:
– Ores are roasted and reduced to obtain nickel
– Separation methods include heating in air to oxidize sulfide and electrolytic processes

– Extraction:
– Nickel is obtained through mining
– Ore is roasted and reduced to yield a metal with over 75% purity
– Stainless steel applications:
– 68% of all nickel produced is used for stainless steel
– Nickel is also used in other alloys, such as nichrome and superalloys
– Other uses:
– Magnets, rechargeable batteries, electroplating, catalysts, nonferrous alloys
– Stainless steel, alnico magnet, coinage, electric guitar strings, microphone capsules, plating on plumbing fixtures
– Green tint in glass, gas diffusion electrodes, hydrogenation catalysts, binder in cemented tungsten carbideSources: