History and Major Developments
– Milwaukee was incorporated on January 31, 1846.
– It was founded by Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, and George H. Walker.
– The name ‘Milwaukee’ is derived from the Potawatomi language, meaning ‘gathering place by the water.’
– Milwaukee’s history was influenced by German immigrants in the 19th century.
– The city has undergone several development projects, including the addition of the Wisconsin Center, American Family Field, and Fiserv Forum.
– French missionaries and traders were the first Europeans to pass through the Milwaukee area in the late 17th and 18th centuries.
– The first resident of European descent, Alexis Laframboise, settled a trading post in 1785.
– The Milwaukee River and surrounding lands were given various names by early explorers.
– The spelling of Milwaukee evolved over time, with ‘Milwaukie’ used on the eastern side until the 1880s.
– Milwaukee is the most populous city in Wisconsin and the county seat of Milwaukee County.
– It is the 31st-most populous city in the United States and the fifth-most populous city in the Midwest.
– Milwaukee is categorized as a Gamma minus city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
– The city has a regional GDP of over $102 billion as of 2020.
– Major additions to the city include the Wisconsin Center, American Family Field, Fiserv Forum, and the Hop streetcar system.

Native American Peoples
– Various Native American tribes inhabited the Milwaukee area, including the Menominee, Fox, Mascouten, Sauk, Potawatomi, Ojibwe, and Ho-Chunk.
– These tribes had previously lived around Green Bay before migrating to Milwaukee.
– Native Americans in Milwaukee played a role in major European wars, such as the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War.
– They held a council in Milwaukee in 1812 and participated in the Battle of Fort Dearborn.
– After being attacked in the Black Hawk War, Native Americans signed the 1833 Treaty of Chicago.

European Immigration and Ethnic Communities
– High numbers of German immigrants arrived in Milwaukee during the 1840s and 1850s.
– Wisconsin received a significant number of German immigrants in three major waves.
– German immigration to the United States peaked in the 1880s.
– By 1900, 34% of Milwaukee’s population had German background.
– Polish immigrants came to Milwaukee due to poverty and political oppression.
– Milwaukee became one of the largest Polish settlements in the USA.
– Three distinct Polish communities evolved in Milwaukee.
– Polish population in Milwaukee County rose from 30,000 in 1890 to 100,000 by 1915.
– Milwaukee received immigrants from Lithuania, Italy, Ireland, France, Russia, Bohemia, and Sweden.
– Italian Americans and Irish Americans had significant populations in Milwaukee.
– Milwaukee had the largest percentage of foreign-born residents in the US in 1910.
– European descendants represented 99.7% of Milwaukee’s population in 1910.
– Milwaukee has a strong Greek Orthodox community and a notable Greek Orthodox church designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
– Milwaukee hosts cultural celebrations and festivals for German, Polish, Italian, and Irish communities.
– Other ethnic communities in Milwaukee include Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, African American, Mexican, and Hispanic communities.

Historic Neighborhoods and Geography
– Incorporation of Whitefish Bay, South Milwaukee, Wauwatosa, Cudahy, North Milwaukee, and East Milwaukee (Shorewood).
– Chicago gangster activity during the Prohibition era, with Al Capone owning a home in Brookfield.
– Severe segregation via redlining in the 1930s.
– Population decline and suburbanization in the late 1960s.
– Revitalization efforts in neighborhoods like the Historic Third Ward, Lincoln Village, East Side, Walkers Point, and Bay View.
– Milwaukee is located along the shores and bluffs of Lake Michigan.
– The city has a confluence of three rivers: Menomonee, Kinnickinnic, and Milwaukee.
– Steep bluffs along Lake Michigan and Kettle Moraine landscape southwest of Milwaukee.
– Milwaukee has a total area of 96.80 square miles, with 96.12 square miles being land and 0.68 square miles being water.
– The cityscape of Milwaukee includes numbered north-south streets and named east-west streets.
– Major highways in Milwaukee include Interstate 43, Interstate 94, and Interstate 894.
– Milwaukee has historic neighborhoods and landmarks such as the U.S. Bank Center.

Climate and Weather Patterns
– Milwaukee has a humid continental climate with rapidly changing weather.
– The city experiences cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers.
– July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 73.3°F (22.9°C).
– January is the coldest month with a mean temperature of 24.0°F (−4.4°C).
– The proximity to Lake Michigan creates a convection current known as the lake breeze.
– The lake breeze is most common between March and July and brings cooler temperatures inland.
– After sunset, the convection current reverses, and an offshore flow called land breeze occurs.
– Land breeze can bring warmer temperatures to the lakeshore during late evening.
– Milwaukee experiences the urban heat island effect, resulting in warmer overnight lows in downtown compared to suburban areas.
– Onshore winds from Lake Michigan increase daytime relative humidity levels in Milwaukee.
– Thunderstorms in the region can be dangerous, bringing hail, high winds, and occasionally tornadoes.
– Summer rainfall in the city is mainly brought by thunderstorms, while spring and fall have prolonged, lighter rain events.
– Milwaukee has temperature extremes, with hot days above 90°F (32°C) and cold nights below 0°F (−18°C).
– The highest recorded temperature was 105°F (41°C), and the lowestSources: