Properties and Form/Structure
– Metals are shiny, lustrous, and can transmit green light.
– Metals exist in solid or liquid states.
– Metal atoms readily lose outer shell electrons and are held together by metallic bonds.
– Metals have a delocalized cloud of electrons surrounding the atoms.
– Different metals have different densities.
– Metallic solids are typically malleable and ductile.
– Metals can undergo reversible elastic deformation.
– Metals can have three common crystal structures: body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal close-packed (hcp).

Electrical and Thermal Properties
– Metals can conduct electricity at absolute zero temperature.
– The atomic structure of metals allows for the movement of electrons.
– Different metals have different electrical conductivities.
– Metals are relatively good conductors of heat.
– The contribution of a metal’s electrons to its heat capacity and thermal conductivity can be calculated using the free electron model.

Applications and History
– Metals are used in various applications such as high-rise buildings, bridges, vehicles, home appliances, tools, pipes, and railroad tracks.
– Precious metals were historically used as coinage.
– Copper was one of the first metals used by humans around 11,000 years ago.
– Developments in metal production include the discovery of sodium, rise of modern alloy steels, and development of sophisticated alloys since World War II.

Chemical Properties and Periodic Table Distribution
– Metals tend to form cations through electron loss.
– Most metals react with oxygen to form oxides.
– Oxides of metals are generally basic, except for certain oxides with high oxidation states.
– Painting, anodizing, or plating metals can prevent corrosion.
– Elements forming metallic structures are shown in yellow on the periodic table.
– Elements near the border between metals and nonmetals often exhibit intermediate chemical behavior and are categorized as metalloids.

Alloys and Special Types of Metals
– Alloys are substances composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.
– Alloys modify the properties of pure metals.
– Refractory metals are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear.
– White metals are low-melting-point metals or alloys.
– Heavy metals are relatively dense metals or metalloids.
– Base metals easily oxidize or corrode, while noble metals are resistant to oxidation and corrosion.
– Precious metals are highly valued for their rarity and beauty.Sources: