Law – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Types of Law
– Medical law: deals with rights and responsibilities of medical professionals and patients
– Physician-Patient Privilege: protects private conversations and personal information shared with medical personnel
– Property law: governs rights and obligations related to buying, selling, or renting homes, land, and objects
– Intellectual property law: protects creations such as art, music, literature, inventions, and company names
– Trust law: sets rules for investments like pension funds and involves administrative and property law

Rule of Law
– Government can only use power in a way agreed upon by the government and the people
– Limits government powers and protects people’s rights
– Enforcing the legal code honestly, even on leaders and their friends, demonstrates the rule of law
– Aristotle believed the rule of law is better than the rule of any individual
– Culture, family, social habits, and religion can influence the principles behind laws

Civil Law and Common Law
– Civil law: based on legislation found in constitutions or statutes passed by government
– Judges have limited power, and laws are mainly created by Members of Parliament
– Common law: based on decisions made by judges in past court cases
– Originated in England and spread to countries once part of the British Empire
– Predominant form of law in the United States, where Congress writes statutes but courts create legal rules

Religious Law
– Law based on religious beliefs or books
– Examples include Jewish Halakha, Islamic Sharia, and Christian Canon law
– Sharia law was the main legal system in the Muslim world until the 1700s
– Some Muslim countries still base their law on Sharia law, but it is criticized for its harsh penalties
– European Court has ruled that Sharia law is incompatible with fundamental principles of democracy

History of Law
– Ancient Egyptian law developed around 3000 BC
– Hammurabi’s Code, written around 1700 BC, is one of the oldest known legal texts
– Law is closely connected to the development of human civilizations
– Different societies and cultures have relied on custom, tradition, and religious books as sources of law
– The Magna Carta in the Middle Ages marked the beginnings of common law in England and its spread to other countries

– Democracies choose politicians to represent them in a legislature.
– Examples of legislatures include the Houses of Parliament in London, the Congress in Washington, D.C., the Bundestag in Berlin, the Duma in Moscow, and the Assemblée nationale in Paris.
– Most legislatures have two chambers: a lower house and an upper house.
– A majority of Members of Parliament must vote for a bill in each house for it to become a law.
– The legislature is responsible for writing and approving laws.

– The judiciary is a group of judges who resolve disputes and determine guilt or innocence.
– Some jurisdictions have judges who direct juries on legal interpretation, while juries determine the facts and guilt or innocence.
– Common law and civil law systems have appeals courts, with a supreme authority like the Supreme Court or the High Court.
– The highest courts can remove unconstitutional laws.
– The judiciary ensures justice and upholds the law.

Executive (government) and Head of State:
– The executive is the governing center of political authority.
– In most democratic countries, the executive is elected from the legislature and is called the cabinet.
– Some countries have a separate President as the head of the executive branch.
– The executive suggests new laws, handles international relations, and controls the military, police, and bureaucracy.
– The executive appoints ministers or secretaries of state to manage specific departments.

Other parts of the legal system:
– The police enforce criminal laws and arrest suspects.
– Bureaucrats are government workers who operate within a system of rules and make decisions in writing.
– Lawyers provide legal advice, represent clients in court, and have to complete a law program and pass an entrance examination.
– Civil society includes organizations that protect human rights, freedom of speech, and individual rights.
– Corporations use the legal system to further their goals, engage in commerce, and ensure employee loyalty.

Related pages:
– Constitution
– Death penalty
– Ethics
– Legal code
– Legal rightsSources: