Description and History of Immobilisers
– The electric immobiliser/alarm system was invented in 1919 by St. George Evans and Edward Birkenbuel.
– It consisted of a 3×3 grid of double-contact switches on a panel inside the car.
– The system could immobilize the vehicle and sound the horn when activated.
– Modern immobiliser systems are automatic and do not require manual activation.
– Immobilisers have been mandatory in several countries since the late 1990s.

Availability and Usage of Immobilisers
– Add-on immobilisers are available for older cars or vehicles without factory immobilisers.
– Thatcham 2 is the insurance approval for self-arming immobilisers.
– Approved immobilisers intercept at least two circuits, such as the ignition and fuel pump circuits.
– In Australia, immobilisers are fitted to 45% of all cars but account for only 7% of stolen cars.
– Honda was the first motorcycle manufacturer to include immobilisers in the 1990s.

Vulnerabilities and Security Flaws of Immobilisers
– Vulnerabilities have been found in immobilisers designed to protect modern cars.
– The Megamos chip, commonly used in immobilisers, has been proven to be crackable.
– Hacking an immobiliser would be performed on the vehicle, not on the key.
– Some immobiliser systems may accept non-transponder keys even after the original key has been removed.
– Immobilisers may have security flaws that allow unauthorized access to the vehicle.

Effectiveness and Benefits of Immobilisers
– A study found that immobilisers lowered car theft rates by about 40% between 1995 and 2008.
– The benefits of immobilisers in preventing thefts outweigh the installation costs.
– Immobilisers are effective in reducing car thefts and improving vehicle security.
– The use of immobilisers has become a standard security feature in modern cars.
– Immobilisers contribute to overall crime prevention and public safety.

Related Concepts and Systems
– Anti-theft system
– Anti-hijack system
– Ignition interlock device
– On-board diagnostics#Security issues
– Vehicle Theft Protection ProgramSources: