Closed-circuit television

History and Technology of CCTV
– Closed circuit TV system developed in June 1927 by Russian physicist Léon Theremin
– Early CCTV system installed by Siemens AG in Peenemünde, Nazi Germany in 1942
– First commercial closed-circuit television system available in the United States in 1949
– CCTV systems installed in central London by the Metropolitan Police between 1960 and 1965
– CCTV used in Munich to monitor traffic in 1963
– Reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage
– VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information
– Digital multiplexing developed in the 1990s, allowing multiple cameras to record at once
– Shift towards Internet-based products and systems in recent years
– Continuous technological developments enhancing CCTV technology

Application and Uses of CCTV
– CCTV used as pay-per-view theatre television for sports events like professional boxing and wrestling
– Closed-circuit telecasts peaked in popularity with Muhammad Ali fights in the 1960s and 1970s
– CCTV used for live transmission of events like WrestleMania I in 1985
– Olean, New York became the first city in the United States to install CCTV cameras along its main business street in 1968
– CCTV-based home security system patented by Marie Van Brittan Brown in 1969
– Crime prevention and deterrence
– Monitoring public areas and spaces like housing projects, schools, and parks
– Use in banks and stores to discourage theft and record evidence of criminal activity
– Installation of CCTV systems in public housing and residential areas in New York City in 1997
– Experimentation and larger trial programs of outdoor CCTV in the UK during the 1970s and 1980s

Effectiveness of CCTV in Crime Prevention
– Meta-analysis of 41 studies found that CCTV reduced crime by 24-28% in public streets and urban subway stations.
– CCTV can decrease unruly behavior in football stadiums and theft in supermarkets/mass merchant stores.
– CCTV is more effective in preventing property crimes than in violent crimes.
– CCTV has played a crucial role in tracing the movements of suspects or victims.
– Large-scale CCTV installations have been effective in defending against terrorism.

Uptime and Reliability of CCTV Systems
– In 2013, the City of Philadelphia Auditor found that a $15M CCTV system was operational only 32% of the time.
– Reliability issues can impact the effectiveness of CCTV in crime prevention.
– The uptime of CCTV systems is a significant concern for law enforcement agencies.
– Unreliable CCTV systems can hinder the detection and conviction of offenders.
– The maintenance of high-definition CCTV systems is expensive.

Cost-effectiveness and Crime Solving with CCTV
– Cost-effectiveness analysis showed little monetary saving with the installation of CCTV.
– Non-monetary benefits of CCTV were not considered in the analysis.
– Professional installation and maintenance of high-definition CCTV is expensive.
– The cost-effectiveness of CCTV varies depending on the context and location.
– Critics argue that the value of CCTV goes beyond monetary savings.
– In London alone, six crimes are solved each day on average using CCTV footage.
– CCTV can be a valuable tool in criminal investigations.
– CCTV recordings are routinely sought by UK police forces after crimes.
– CCTV has aided in the detection and conviction of offenders.
– CCTV can provide crucial evidence in solving crimes.

Other Uses of CCTV
– Body-worn video cameras have been introduced for surveillance in law enforcement.
– CCTV is used for traffic flow monitoring and detecting congestion.
– Many cities and motorway networks have extensive traffic-monitoring systems using CCTV.
– Highways England has a publicly owned CCTV network of over 3000 cameras.
– CCTV is used for enforcing the London congestion charge and locating cars.Sources: