New York City

Geography and Population
– Located at coordinates 40°42′46″N 74°00′22″W
– Covers an area of 472.43 sq mi (1,223.59 km)
– Consists of five boroughs: Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island
– Situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbors
– Has a highest elevation of 401 ft (122 m) and a lowest elevation of 0 ft (0 m)
– Total population of 8,804,190 (2020)
– Estimated population of 8,335,897 (July 2022)
– Ranked as the 1st most populous city in the United States and New York State
– Population density of 29,302.66/sq mi (11,313.81/km)
– Urban population of 19,426,449 with an urban density of 5,980.8/sq mi (2,309.2/km)

Importance and Influence
– Global city with significant influence on commerce, technology, tourism, art, and sports
– Cultural, financial, high-tech, entertainment, and media center
– Home to the headquarters of the United Nations
– Described as the world’s most important city and the capital of the world
– Geographical and demographic center of the Northeast megalopolis and the New York metropolitan area

Immigration and Diversity
– Premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States
– Most linguistically diverse city in the world, with over 800 languages spoken
– Right-to-shelter law guarantees shelter to anyone in need, regardless of immigration status
– Largest foreign-born population of any city in the world, with over 3.2 million residents born outside the U.S.
– Most visited U.S. city by international visitors

Landmarks and Economy
– Major landmarks and tourist attractions, including Times Square and the Empire State Building
– Home to the world’s two largest stock exchanges: the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq
– Leading financial and fintech center, and the most economically powerful city in the world
– Second-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a gross metropolitan product of almost $2.0 trillion
– Most expensive city in the world for expatriates to live, with a high residential and commercial real estate market

Historical Events
– Dutch rule: New Amsterdam established, Dutch West India Company, patroon system, Peter Stuyvesant’s leadership
– English rule: New Amsterdam surrendered to English troops, renamed New York, brief Dutch control, Treaty of Westminster
– American Revolution: Stamp Act Congress, Sons of Liberty, Battle of Long Island, British military base, Loyalist refugees
– Post-revolutionary period and early 19th century: National capital, George Washington’s inauguration, Great Fire of New York, trading port and center of slavery
– Early History of New York City: Federal Hall, population growth, New York Manumission Society, abolition of slavery
– Growth and Development in the 19th Century: Population increase, commercial and residential development, street grid expansion, Erie Canal, Tammany Hall
– American Civil War and its Impact: Democratic Party dominance, Draft Riots, decline in Black population
– Early 20th Century Developments: Consolidation of boroughs, subway opening, industrial and commercial growth, tragic events, increase in non-White population
– Late 20th and 21st Century Challenges and Resilience: Economic problems and rising crime rates, financial industry resurgence, drop in crime rates, gentrification, September 11 attacksSources: