Bank vault

Bank Vault Design and Manufacturing Process
– Bank vaults are custom orders and are usually the first aspect of a new bank building to be designed and built.
– The vault size, shape, controls, and location of the door are determined in consultation with the customer.
– The vault panels and door are manufactured based on the approved design.
– The vault is delivered and installed by the manufacturer.
– Bank vaults are typically made with steel-reinforced concrete, using a special blend of concrete and additives for extreme strength.
– The wall panels of a bank vault are molded using a special reinforced concrete mix.
– Additional materials such as metal shavings or abrasive materials may be added to resist drilling penetration of the slab.
– A network of reinforcing steel rods is manually placed into the damp mix.
– The molds are vibrated to settle the material and eliminate air pockets.
– The panels are removed from the mold and transported to the construction site.
– The vault door is also molded using special concrete and can be made in different ways.
– Some manufacturers use steel cladding as the mold and pour the concrete directly into it.

Bank Vault Door and Lock
– Round vault doors were popular in the early 20th century but fell out of favor due to manufacturing complexities, maintenance issues, and cost.
– A day gate, made of open metal mesh or glass, is a second door inside the main vault door frame used for limited vault protection.
– The main vault door is often clad in stainless steel.
– A vault door is secured with numerous massive metal bolts extending from the door into the surrounding frame.
– The lock is mounted on the inside of the door and is usually very difficult to access from the outside.
Combination locks, similar to padlocks or safe doors, are commonly used in vaults.
– Some high-end vaults use a two-piece key in conjunction with a combination lock for added security.
– Dual control combination locks require two people to cooperate to open the door, increasing security.

Bank Vault Security Features
– Modern bank vaults are equipped with a wide array of alarms and anti-theft devices.
– Some older vaults were so well-built that they are difficult to destroy, even with specialized demolition equipment.
– Bank vaults are designed to protect contents from theft, unauthorized use, fire, natural disasters, and other threats.
– Vault walls are typically thick, made of steel-reinforced concrete, and can weigh hundreds of tons.
– There are public examples of vaults withstanding nuclear blasts, such as the Teikoku Bank in Hiroshima and a vault at the Nevada National Security Site.
– Modern vaults use technological countermeasures like listening devices and cameras.
– Alarm systems are present to alert local police if the door or lock is tampered with.

Bank Vault Installation and Resistance Standards
– Finished vault panels, door, and lock assembly are transported to the construction site.
– Panels are placed and welded together by the vault manufacturer’s workers.
– Alarm systems may be installed at the same time.
– US resistance standards are overseen by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL).
– Thickness of vault walls is no longer a measure of strength.
– Effectiveness of vaults is measured by performance against mock break-ins.
– Manufacturers conduct their own testing to ensure success in UL trials.
– UL-608 rating system is based on the time to breach the vault.
– European resistance standards are covered under Euronorm 1143-1:2012 (BS EN 1143-1: 2012).
– Tests cover safes, ATMs, strongrooms, and doors.
– Grades and resistance qualifiers are determined through tests.
– Test attack tools fall into five categories with increasing penetrative capability.

Bank Vault Technology Advancements and Maintenance
– Bank vault technology changed rapidly in the 1980s and 1990s.
– Improved concrete materials led to stronger vaults.
– Bank burglaries are no longer a substantial problem.
– Vault manufacturers continue to counter new break-in methods.
– Thermal lance is an issue in the 21st century, requiring close collaboration between manufacturers, the banking industry, and law enforcement.
– Regular inspection and maintenance routines are necessary for bank vault upkeep.
– Testing of security systems is conducted.
– Repair and replacement of damaged components are done as needed.
– Upgrading security technology is important.
– Compliance with safety regulations is necessary.Sources: