500 BC

– Vulca creates the Apollo of Veii, now at Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome.
– The Nordic Bronze Age civilization ends, marking the start of the Pre-Roman Iron Age in Scandinavia.
– Refugees from Teos settle in Abdera.
– Middle East:
– Darius I of Persia declares Aramaic as the official language of the western half of his empire.
– Africa:
– Bantu-speaking people migrate into southwest Uganda from Central Africa.
– The Hutu tribe emerges in Middle and Southern Africa.
– Hanno the Navigator explores the western coast of Africa, possibly reaching Gabon.
– Asia:
– The first republic in Vaishali, Bihar, India is founded.
– The Kingdom of Pratipalapura exists, centered on modern Bhattiprolu, Andhra Pradesh.
– The Yayoi period begins in Ancient Japan.
– Mesoamerica:
– The oldest known Zapotec writing appears.
– The Olmec establish Monte Albán, a sacred city with pyramids, becoming a dominant polity in the Oaxacan highlands.

– The world population reaches 100,000,000.
– 85,000,000 in the Eastern Hemisphere.
– 15,000,000 in the Western Hemisphere, primarily Mesoamerica and northern South America.

Arts and Culture
– The She-wolf sculpture is created, now at the Museo Capitolino in Rome.

Inventions, Discoveries, Introductions
– Mesoamerican calendars are developed by the Olmec civilization.

– Anaxagoras, Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (approximate date) (d. 428 BC).Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/500_BC