Geography and Population
– Virginia is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions of the United States.
– It is located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
– The state has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles (110,785.67 square kilometers).
– Virginia is the 35th largest state in the U.S.
– The latitude of Virginia ranges from 36°32′N to 39°28′N, and the longitude ranges from 75°15′W to 83°41′W.
– In 2022, Virginia’s population was over 8.68 million.
– Approximately 35% of the population lives within the Greater Washington metropolitan area.
– Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision in the state.
– Richmond is the capital city of Virginia.
– Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the state.

History and Government
– Virginia was the site of the first permanent English colony in the New World, established in 1607.
– The state played a significant role in both the American Revolution and the American Civil War.
– Virginia was one of the original Thirteen Colonies.
– The state’s nickname, ‘The Old Dominion,’ refers to its status as the first English colony.
– Virginia’s history is marked by conflicts with indigenous groups, the growth of a plantation economy fueled by slave labor, and political divisions during the Civil War.
– Virginia’s state legislature is called the Virginia General Assembly.
– It is the oldest current law-making body in North America, established in July 1619.
– The Virginia General Assembly consists of a 40-member Senate and a 100-member House of Delegates.
– Unlike other states, cities and counties in Virginia function as equals.
– Governors in Virginia are prohibited from serving consecutive terms.

Economy and Industry
– Virginia’s economy is diverse, with a strong agriculture industry in the Shenandoah Valley.
– Northern Virginia is known for its high-tech industry and federal agencies, including the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency.
– Hampton Roads is home to military facilities and the region’s main seaport.
– Virginia has a thriving tourism industry, with attractions such as Colonial Williamsburg and Shenandoah National Park.
– The state also benefits from its proximity to Washington, D.C., which drives economic activity in the Greater Washington metropolitan area.
– Virginia saw new large-scale production centered around Richmond after the invention of the tobacco cigarette rolling machine in 1880.
– Newport News Shipbuilding, founded in 1886, built several naval vessels for the U.S. Navy.
– The shipyard and Radford Arsenal experienced significant growth during World War II.

Colonial Era, Statehood, and Revolutionary War
– After the 1660 Restoration, Governor William Berkeley restricted indentured servants’ rights and movement.
– Conflict between colonists and Piedmont tribes led to Bacons Rebellion in 1676.
– Bacons Laws were enacted, allowing attacks on native tribes and the enslavement of their people.
– The Treaty of 1677 further reduced the independence of tribes and aided colonization of their land.
– The Ohio Company, backed by the British monarchy, started English settlement in the Ohio Country in the 1700s.
– Patrick Henry led a protest against the Stamp Act in 1765.
– Virginians opposed new taxes imposed by the British Parliament.
– Virginia sent delegates to the Continental Congress in 1774.
– Virginia declared independence from the British Empire in 1776.
– George Washington led the Continental Army and Virginia ratified the Articles of Confederation in 1777.
– The capital was moved to Richmond in 1780 to avoid British attacks.
– British forces raided Richmond in 1781.
– The Marquis de Lafayette and French allies confined the British to the Virginia Peninsula in the siege of Yorktown.
– Cornwallis surrendered in 1781, leading to peace negotiations and American independence.
– Virginians played significant roles in drafting the United States Constitution.

Civil War, Formation of West Virginia, and Civil Rights to Present
– Slavery increased in Virginia between 1790 and 1860, with over 490,000 slaves and 50,000 slave owners.
– Cotton production and tobacco farming led to the exportation of slaves and degradation of agricultural productivity.
– Failed slave uprisings in the early 1800s marked growing resistance to slavery.
– John Brown’s raid in 1859 and Lincoln’s election in 1860 intensified the debate over slavery.
– Virginia seceded from the Union and became the capital of the Confederacy in 1861.
– Richmond served as the Confederate capital from 1861 to 1865.
– Union forces recaptured Richmond in April 1865.
– Representatives from 27 counties organized the Wheeling Convention in 1861, leading to the separation of West Virginia as a new state.
– Virginia was restored to the United States in 1870.
– African Americans achieved some land ownership during the 1870s.
– The Readjuster Party focused on building up schools and forced West Virginia to share in the pre-war debt.
– White supremacists seized political power through voter suppression and segregationists won the legislature in 1883.
– Protests against underfunded segregated schools started in 1951, leading to the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.
– Protests in 2020 focused on Confederate monuments in the state.
– Massive resistance policies prohibited desegregated schools from receiving funding in the 1950s.
– The civil rights movement gained national support in the 1960s, leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act.
– The Supreme Court struck down the state’s ban on interracial marriage in 1967.
– Virginia rewrote its constitution in 1971, banning discrimination and removing articles that violated federal law.Sources: