Types of Organizations
– Corporations
– Governments
– Non-governmental organizations
– Political organizations
– International organizations

Hybrid Organizations
– Operate in both the public and private sectors
– Fulfill public duties and develop commercial market activities
– Examples: public-private partnerships, social enterprises

Voluntary Associations
– Consist of volunteers
– Can operate without legal formalities
– Examples: informal clubs, coordinating bodies with a goal in mind

Secret and Illegal Organizations
– Operate secretly or illegally
– Examples: secret societies, criminal organizations, resistance movements
– May face obstacles from other organizations

Recognition by the Government
– Recognized through incorporation or societal pressure
– Recognition can lead to negotiation and representation
– Examples: advocacy groups, resistance movements, partially recognized states

Subtopic 1: Division of Labor
– Division of labor allows for specialization and economies of specialization.
– Increasing specialization requires coordination.
– Markets and organizations are alternative coordination mechanisms.
– Organizations solve tasks beyond the abilities of individual elements.
– Advantages of organizations include enhancement, addition, and extension.

Theories of Organization
– Activity theory influences the development of the Organization Workshop method.
– Actor-network theory treats objects as part of social networks.
– Complexity theory applies to strategic management and organizational studies.
– Contingency theory claims there is no best way to organize a corporation.
– Critical management studies offer critiques of management and business.

Economic Sociology
– Economic sociology studies the social effects and causes of economic phenomena.
– Enterprise architecture defines the coalescence of organizational structure and behavior.
– Garbage Can Model disconnects problems, solutions, and decision-makers.
– Principal-agent problem concerns motivating one party to act in the best interests of another.
– Scientific management analyzes and synthesizes workflows.

– A leader in a formal organization has the right to command and enforce obedience.
– Personal attributes must match the authority of the position.
– Emergent leaders can challenge the role of a manager without sufficient competence.
– Formal sanctions back the authority of position.
– Personal influence and power can be legitimized through a formal position.

Formal and Informal Organizations
– Formal organizations are established to achieve defined objectives.
– Design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization.
– The formal organization behaves impersonally in relationships.
– Informal organizations express personal objectives and goals.
– Informal leaders emerge within the context of the informal organization.

Subtopic 1: Definition and Types of Organizations
– Organizations are social systems with purposive activity.
– Non-organizations lack programs and collective identities.
– Races, ethnic groups, social classes, cliques, and playgroups are examples of non-organizations.
– Interest groups like liberals or old-fashioned conservatives have no rosters.
– Organizations can be classified into different types based on their structure and purpose.

Key Factors in Organizational Success
– Leadership behavior plays a crucial role in organizational success.
– Trust and contractual safeguards are important for cooperation in non-equity alliances.
– Formal contracts and relational governance can function as substitutes or complements.
– Matrix structures can have effects on project success.
– Effective organizational design and structure are essential for success.

Further Reading on Organization Structures and Design
– ‘Organization Structures: Theory and Design, Analysis and Prescription’ by Helmy H. Baligh.
– ‘Inside Organizations: 21 Ideas for Managers’ by Charles Handy.
– ‘Understanding Organizations’ by Charles Handy.
– ‘The Cognitive Leader’ by Roderic Hewlett.
– ‘Management, Systems, and Society: An Introduction’ by Richard Arvid Johnson.

Key Theories and Concepts in Organizational Studies
– ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert Louis Kahn.
– ‘Organizations’ by James G. March and Herbert A. Simon.
– ‘Organization Theory’ in The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics.
– ‘Organization Design: Fashion or Fit’ by Henry Mintzberg.
– ‘Institutions and Organizations’ by William Richard Scott.

External Links and References
– Wiktionary’s definition of organization.
– Wikiquote’s collection of quotes related to organization.
– Guidelines for improving Wikipedia articles with external links.
– ‘The Nature of the Firm’ by Ronald Coase.
– ‘Barriers and Gateways to Communication’ by Carl R. Rogers and Fritz Jules Roethlisberger.Sources: