Near-field communication

Introduction and Basics of NFC
– NFC enables communication between two electronic devices over a distance of 4cm (1.57in) or less.
– NFC offers a low-speed connection that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections.
– NFC is based on inductive coupling between two antennas present on NFC-enabled devices.
– NFC operates at a frequency of 13.56MHz in the globally available unlicensed radio frequency ISM band.
– The NFC Forum has defined and promoted the technology, setting standards for device compliance.

NFC Standards and Protocols
– NFC standards are based on existing RFID standards such as ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa.
– The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC Forum.
– The GSMA group has defined NFC standards for mobile handsets.
– NFC protocols replace proprietary technologies used by earlier systems.
– The NFC Forum and GSMA efforts include Trusted Services Manager, Single Wire Protocol, testing/certification, and secure element.

Applications and Uses of NFC
– NFC-enabled devices can read electronic tags and make payments when connected to an NFC-compliant system.
– NFC can be used for contactless transactions, data exchange, and simplified setup of more complex communications.
– NFC enables data exchange with online services when one of the connected devices has internet connectivity.
– NFC has applications in transportation, advertising, industrial, and consumer sectors.
– NFC has the potential to replace technologies such as QR codes, barcodes, and UHF RFID tags.

History and Developments of NFC
– NFC is rooted in RFID technology, which allows communication with passive electronic tags using radio waves.
– The first patent associated with RFID was granted in 1983.
– Philips and Sony established a technology specification for NFC in 2002.
– NFC was approved as an ISO/IEC standard in 2003 and later as an ECMA standard.
– The NFC Forum was established in 2004 by Nokia, Philips, and Sony.
– Various partnerships and developments have been made to enable NFC mobile payments and authentication.

NFC Organizations and Standardization Bodies
– The NFC Forum is a non-profit industry association formed by NXP Semiconductors, Sony, and Nokia.
– The GSM Association (GSMA) represents mobile telephony operators and service companies.
– ETSI/SCP specifies the interface between SIM card and NFC chipset.
– EMVCo focuses on the impact of NFC on payment applications.
– Multiple standardization bodies are involved in NFC technology.
– Other organizations such as StoLPaN and the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies program are also involved in NFC development.Sources: