1948 Palestinian expulsion and flight

Causes and Impact of the 1948 Palestinian Exodus
– Jewish military advances
– Destruction of Arab villages
– Psychological warfare
– Fears of another massacre by Zionist militias
– Direct expulsion orders by Israeli authorities
– Village wells poisoned in a biological warfare program
– Properties looted to prevent Palestinian refugees from returning
– Hebraization of Palestinian place names
– Land and property laws preventing Arabs from returning or claiming their property
– Existence of the Law of Return allowing Jewish immigration and naturalization to Israel

Number of Palestinian Refugees
– Precise number of Palestinian refugees is a matter of dispute
– More than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled
– Around 80% of Arab inhabitants of what became Israel left or were expelled
– About 250,000-300,000 Palestinians fled or were expelled before the Israeli Declaration of Independence
– United Nations estimated 711,000 Palestinian refugees outside Israel in 1949

Actions taken by Palestinian and Zionist groups
– Palestinian Arab attacks and Jewish defensiveness
– Jewish reprisal operations directed against villages and neighborhoods
– Irgun and Lehi placing bombs and throwing grenades into crowded places
– Arab Liberation Army evacuating non-combatants from frontier villages
– Arab depopulation occurring in villages close to Jewish settlements and vulnerable neighborhoods

Historical interpretation and ongoing issues
– Disagreement among historians on the causes of the 1948 Palestinian exodus
– Some historians describe the expulsion as ethnic cleansing
– Existence of the Law of Return and denial of Palestinian right of return cited as evidence of apartheid
– Status of refugees and right to return key issues in Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Nakba Day commemorated by Palestinians on May 15th

Specific incidents and events related to the Palestinian exodus
– Haganah and Irgun actions, including expulsion of communities without authorization
– Deir Yassin massacre and panic among Palestinians
– Haifa evacuation and the role of Haganah mortar attacks and psychological warfare
– Expulsion as a regular practice, with commanders resorting to cleansing operations and expulsions
– Expulsion of Arab population before and during battle, with townspeople and villagers fleeing and being forcibly ejected
– Specific villages targeted for expulsion, such as Kafr Saba, al-Tira, Qaqun, Qalansuwa, and Tantura
– Factors contributing to Palestinian emigration, including Haganah/IDF operations, Irgun and Lehi operations, explicit expulsion orders, psychological warfare, and Arab calls for flight
– Expulsions during July-October 1948, including the largest single expulsion in Lydda and Ramla
– Impact and aftermath of expulsions, including looting, cases of rape, and displacement of Palestinians
– October 1948 – March 1949 operations and Palestinian resistance
– United Nations mediation, including the role of Count Folke Bernadotte and UN General Assembly Resolution 194
– Lausanne Conference of 1949 and the failure to reach a compromise on the return of refugees
– Results of the Palestinian exodus, including depopulation, replacement of Arabic place names, economic damage, and ethnic cleansing.Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Palestinian_expulsion_and_flight